The efficacy of function water (electrolyzed strong acid solution) on open heart surgery; postoperative mediastinitis due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus]

[Article in Japanese]

Ichihara TFujii GEda TSasaki MUeda Y.

Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Tosei General Hospital, Seto, Japan.

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection after cardiac surgery has recently increased. We compared the anti-inflammatory effect of an electrolyzed strong acid solution and a warm saline solution in patients with open heart surgery. These solutions were used for mediastinal irrigation before closing the sternum. Group A patients were irrigated by a warm saline solution, and group B patients were irrigated by an electrolyzed strong acid solution, administration of this water is safe, feasible, and easy for the prevention of MRSA infection. Postoperative infection was significantly decreased in the group B as compared in the group A. An electrolyzed strong acid solution may be effective on postoperative infection, particularly MRSA infection following open heart surgery.


Corrosion behavior of dental alloys in various types of electrolyzed water.

Dong HNagamatsu YChen KKTajima KKakigawa HShi SKozono Y.

Pedodontics Research Institute, Tongji University, 2, Lane 158, DaMuQiao Rd., Ste. 402 Shanghai, 200032, PR China.

The corrosion behavior of dental alloys was examined in electrolyzed strong acid water, weak acid water and neutral water using a 7-day immersion test. The precious metal alloys, gold alloy. Au-Ag-Pd alloy and silver alloy showed the greatest surface color change and dissolution of constituents in the strong acid water and the smallest in the neutral water. The release of Au from gold alloy was especially marked in the strong acid water. Co-Cr alloy showed greater corrosion and tarnish resistance in the strong acid water rather than in the weak acid water and the neutral water. X-ray microanalysis revealed that the corrosion products on the precious metal alloys were silver chloride crystals and the thin brown products on Co-Cr alloy were cobalt and chromium oxides. Ti was sound in all three types of electrolyzed water. The neutral water appeared the least corrosive to metals among the three types showing equivalent bactericidal activity.


Reduced hemodialysis-induced oxidative stress in end-stage renal disease patients by electrolyzed reduced water.

Huang KCYang CCLee KTChien CT.

Department of Family Medicine, National Taiwan University College of Medicine and National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan.

BACKGROUND: Increased oxidative stress in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients may oxidize macromolecules and consequently lead to cardiovascular events during chronic hemodialysis. Electrolyzed reduced water (ERW) with reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging ability may have a potential effect on reduction of hemodialysis-induced oxidative stress in ESRD patients. METHODS: We developed a chemiluminescence emission spectrum and high-performance liquid chromatography analysis to assess the effect of ERW replacement on plasma ROS (H2O2 and HOCl) scavenging activity and oxidized lipid or protein production in ESRD patients undergoing hemodialysis. Oxidized markers, dityrosine, methylguanidine, and phosphatidylcholine hydroperoxide, and inflammatory markers, interleukin 6 (IL-6), and C-reactive protein (CRP) were determined. RESULTS: Although hemodialysis efficiently removes dityrosine and creatinine, hemodialysis increased oxidative stress, including phosphatidylcholine hydroperoxide, and methylguanidine. Hemodialysis reduced the plasma ROS scavenging activity, as shown by the augmented reference H2O2 and HOCl counts (Rh2o2 and Rhocl, respectively) and decreased antioxidative activity (expressed as total antioxidant status in this study). ERW administration diminished hemodialysis-enhanced Rh2o2 and Rhocl, minimized oxidized and inflammatory markers (CRP and IL-6), and partly restored total antioxidant status during 1-month treatment. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates that hemodialysis with ERW administration may efficiently increase the H2O2- and HOCl-dependent antioxidant defense and reduce H2O2- and HOCl-induced oxidative stress.


[Cytotoxic effect of antiseptics: comparison In vitro. In vivo examination of strong acidic electrolyzed water, povidone-iodine, chlorhexidine and benzalkonium chloride]

[Article in Japanese]

Iwasawa ANakamura Y.

Showa University Fujigaoka Hospital, Department of Clinical Pathology.

Cytotoxic effect and guinea pig wound cure stage, pus fabrication presence in infected wound were compared with strong acidic electrolyzed water (AcEW) and povidone-iodine solution (PVP-I), chlorhexidine (CHG) and benzalkonium chloride (BAC). It gave the following results: In a cytotoxic test, the toxicity was recognized in 0.1%-0.01% PVP-I, in 0.0002-0.0004% CHG, in 10-0.1 micrograms/ml BAC, but there was no toxicity in AcEW. By a guinea pig wound cure process, no significance was recognized between each pharmaceutical agent in epidermal cell migration, but by an inflammation locus area, the significance was considerable in comparison with no-treatment. The pyopoiesis of P. aeruginosa infected wound was recognized in a ratio of 38.2% physiological saline, 27.3% CHG, 20.6% PVP-I and 12.1% AcEW. When pollution locus includes an infection image of bacteria, while draining AcEW instead of physiological saline, disinfection, indication was expected, and, as for the disorder in cure stage. I do not agree with that mentioned above. As for AcEW, availability by organism use was recognized for the cytotoxic effect of antiseptic instead of action of acceleration for wound cure.


Durability of bactericidal activity in electrolyzed neutral water by storage.

Nagamatsu YChen KKTajima KKakigawa HKozono Y.

Department of Materials Science, Kyushu Dental College, Kokurakita, Kitakyushu, Japan.

Electrolyzed strong and weak acid waters have been widely used for sterilization in clinical dentistry because of their excellent bactericidal activities. Electrolyzed neutral water was recently developed with a new concept of long-term good durability in addition to the excellent bactericidal activity similar to acid waters. The present study, evaluated the storage life of this water compared with the acid waters in terms of the changes in pH, oxidation-reduction potential (ORP), residual chlorine and bactericidal activity under several conditions using Staphylococcus aureus 209P. The strong acid water showed a rapid deterioration of its bactericidal activity. The weak acid and neutral waters exhibited excellent durability. Although all the bacteria were annihilated by the contact with the waters even stored for 40 days in the uncapped bottle, the neutral water was superior in further long-term duration.


Park HHung YCKim C.

Department of Food Science and Technology, College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, University of Georgia, Griffin 30223-1797, USA.

The effectiveness of electrolyzed (EO) water at killing Enterobacter aerogenes and Staphylococcus aureus in pure culture was evaluated. One milliliter (approximately 10(9) CFU/ml) of each bacterium was subjected to 9 ml of EO water or control water (EO water containing 10% neutralizing buffer) at room temperature for 30 s. Inactivation (reduction of > 9 log10 CFU/ ml) of both pathogens occurred within 30 s after exposure to EO water containing approximately 25 or 50 mg of residual chlorine per liter. The effectiveness of EO water in reducing E. aerogenes and S. aureus on different surfaces (glass, stainless steel, glazed ceramic tile, unglazed ceramic tile, and vitreous china) was also evaluated. After immersion of the tested surfaces in EO water for 5 min without agitation, populations of E. aerogenes and S. aureus were reduced by 2.2 to 2.4 log10 CFU/ cm2 and by 1.7 to 1.9 log10 CFU/cm2, respectively, whereas washing with control water resulted in a reduction of only 0.1 to 0.3 log10 CFU/cm2. The washing of tested surfaces in EO water with agitation (50 rpm) reduced populations of viable cells on the tested surfaces to < 1 CFU/cm2. For the control water treatment with agitation, the surviving numbers of both strains on the tested surfaces were approximately 3 log10 CFU/cm2. No viable cells of either strain were observed in the EO water after treatment, regardless of agitation. However, large populations of both pathogens were recovered from control wash solution after treatment.


[Antimicrobial effects and efficacy on habitually hand-washing of strong acidic electrolyzed water–a comparative study of alcoholic antiseptics and soap and tap water]

[Article in Japanese]

Sakashita MIwasawa ANakamura Y.

Department of Nursing, Showa University Fujigaoka Hospital.

The rate of bacterial elimination for the stamp method was compared with regular hand-washing (using soap and tap water), hygienic hand-washing (using alcoholic antiseptics), and hand-washing using strong acidic electrolyzed water (the SAEW method) in routine work. After routine work, the average number of bacteria remaining on the nurse’s hands with using the SAEW-method, rubbing method and tap water method, were: 54 +/- 63, 89 +/- 190, 128 +/- 194 CFU/agar plate, respectively (n = 81). In this study. It was clarified that a much larger number of Bacillus sp. were detected for the rubbing method than for the other methods. After further nurse work, the most number of absorbed bacteria on a nurse’s hands were counted after cleaning a patient’s body. The rate of bacteria elimination for hand-washing with soap and tap water after taking care of a patient was insufficient, especially when before care was provided the number of bacteria on the nurse’s hands were less than 100 CFU/agar plate. From these results, the following manual for sanitary hand washing is recommended: 1. At first, dirty hands should be cleaned and the number of bacteria should be reduced using soap and tap water or by scrubbing with disinfectants. 2. After the number of bacteria has been reduced, use the SAEW method routinely. 3. For care requiring a high level of cleanliness or if no tap water facilities are available, use the rubbing method. Finally, routine use of the SAEW method in ICU could be recommended with conventional disinfectants and soap and tap water on a case by case basis for less than adverse reactions, such as in the case of rough-hands or keeping a low level of bacteria on hands.


Bactericidal activity of electrolyzed acid water from solution containing sodium chloride at low concentration, in comparison with that at high concentration.

Kiura HSano KMorimatsu SNakano TMorita CYamaguchi MMaeda TKatsuoka Y.

Department of Microbiology, Osaka Medical College, Takatsuki, Osaka 569-8686, Japan.

Electrolyzed strong acid water (ESW) containing free chlorine at various concentrations is becoming to be available in clinical settings as a disinfectant. ESW is prepared by electrolysis of a NaCl solution, and has a corrosive activity against medical instruments. Although lower concentrations of NaCl and free chlorine are desired to eliminate corrosion, the germicidal effect of ESW with low NaCl and free-chlorine concentrations (ESW-L) has not been fully clarified. In this study, we demonstrated that ESW-L possesses bactericidal activity against Mycobacteria and spores of Bacillus subtilis. The effect was slightly weaker than that of ESW containing higher NaCl and free-chlorine concentrations (ESW-H), but acceptable as a disinfectant. To clarify the mechanism of the bactericidal activity, we investigated ESW-L-treated Pseudomonas aeruginosa by transmission electron microscopy, a bacterial enzyme assay and restriction fragment length polymorphism pattern (RFLP) assay. Since the bacterium, whose growth was completely inhibited by ESW-L, revealed the inactivation of cytoplasmic enzyme, blebs and breaks in its outer membrane and remained complete RFLP of DNA, damage of the outer membrane and inactivation of cytoplasmic enzyme are the important determinants of the bactericidal activity.


[Observation on the effect of disinfection to HBsAg by electrolyzed oxidizing water]

[Article in Chinese]

Gao ZYin WHan CZhang JJin WLi X.

Nosocomial Infection Department China-Japan Friendship Hospital, Beijing 100029, China.

OBJECTIVE: Observation on the effect of disinfection on gastroscope, contaminated by hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) in the electrolyzed oxidizing water (EOW). METHODS: Contaminated gastric juice and serum was added to EOW for 1 minute. Positive control samples were treated with PBS instead of EOW in the same way. Gastroscopes used for hepatitis patients were immersed in the EOW for 1 minute after cleaning. Samples were collected before and after treatment. ELISA was used to test HBsAg. RESULTS: With mixed samples (average S/N = 42.16) of EOW, HBsAg became negative when diluted in 100 times. However, the HBsAg of positive control samples remained positive. After cleaning the gastroscope (average S/N = 5.99) immersed in EOW, HBsAg became negative. CONCLUSION: EOW was effective in destroying HBsAg which could be used for gastroscope disinfection.


Effects of storage conditions and pH on chlorine loss in electrolyzed oxidizing (EO) water.

Len SVHung YCChung DAnderson JLErickson MCMorita K.

Department of Food Science and Technology, University of Georgia, Griffin, GA 30223-1797, USA.

The chlorine loss of electrolyzed oxidizing (EO) water was examined during storage under different light, agitation, and packaging conditions. The chlorine loss of pH-adjusted EO water was also examined. Under open conditions, the chlorine loss through evaporation followed first-order kinetics. The rate of chlorine loss was increased about 5-fold with agitation, but it was not significantly affected by diffused light. Under closed conditions, the chlorine loss did not follow first-order kinetics, because the primary mechanism of chlorine loss may be self-decomposition of chlorine species rather than chlorine evaporation. The effect of diffused light was more significant compared to agitation after two months of storage under closed conditions. The chlorine loss of EO water and commercial chlorinated water decreased dramatically with the increase of pH from the acidic (pH 2.5) to the alkaline (pH 9.0) region.


Application of electrolyzed acid water to sterilization of denture base part 1. Examination of sterilization effects on resin plate.

Nagamatsu YTajima KKakigawa HKozono Y.

Department of Materials Science, Kyushu Dental College, Kokurakita, Kitakyushu, Japan.

Bactericidal activities of electrolyzed strong and weak acid waters for acrylic denture base resin were evaluated in order to discuss the applicability of these waters for sterilization of denture base. Only 1-minute immersion in the electrolyzed strong or weak acid water could completely eliminate the attached bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus 209P, on the resin plate. When the resin was relined with tissue conditioner, 5-minute immersion or 1- to 2-minute ultrasonic cleaning reduced the number of the bacteria from 10(5)/cm2 level to 10(1)/cm2 and no surviving bacteria could be detected after 10-minute treatment. These findings suggest that both the electrolyzed strong and weak acid waters are well applicable to the disinfectant for acrylic denture base showing excellent bactericidal activities in a significantly shorter treatment as compared with the conventional denture cleaning.


The use of electrolyzed solutions for the cleaning and disinfecting of dialyzers.

Tanaka NTanaka NFujisawa TDaimon TFujiwara KYamamoto MAbe T.

Kiyokai Tanaka-Kitanoda Hospital, Sakai-shi, Osaka, Japan.

Recently, the use of electrolyzed solutions has attracted considerable interest in Japan. This study investigates the efficiency of electrolyzed solutions as disinfecting agents (DA) in the reuse of dialyzers and compares their efficiency to that of other disinfectants currently in use. The following 3 methods were employed. First, the rinsing time and rebound release of reused dialyzers were measured and compared after electrolyzed solutions, electrolyzed strong acid aqueous solution (ESAAS) and electrolyzed strong basic aqueous solution (ESBAS), made from reverse osmosis (RO) water (ESAAS, ESBAS; Generating apparatuses: Super Oxseed alpha 1000, Amano Corporation, Yokohama, Japan), 2% Dialox-cj (Teijin Gambro Medical, Tokyo, Japan), and 3.8% formalin were used as DAs. This involved performing dialysis with 2 types of dialyzers: a cellulose acetate membrane (CAM) dialyzer and a polysulfone membrane (PSM) dialyzer. The dialyzers were cleaned and disinfected using the different DA and left for 48 h. Next, after performing dialysis the dialyzer membranes were cleaned with a saline solution (0.9% NaCl) and RO water and then cleaned with the various DA. These membranes were observed using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) to check for the presence of physical and biological contaminants. Finally, in vitro tests were performed to determine the level of dialyzer clearance when PSM dialyzers were reused after having been cleaned and disinfected with the electrolyzed solutions. The rinsing time results for both the CAM and PSM dialyzers showed the electrolyzed solutions (ESBAS and ESAAS) as being undetectable within 10 min. With regard to the rebound release, for both the CAM and PSM dialyzers, the electrolyzed solutions were undetectable at all checking times between 30 and 240 min. Observation by SEM showed that cleaning with both ESAAS and ESBAS left the fewest contaminants, and cleaning with 2% Dialox-cj left the highest level of contaminants in the CAM dialyzers. With regard to experiments concerning use in vitro, no major changes in the dialyzer clearance were noticed after 6 uses. In every experiment, the previous investigations showed the electrolyzed solutions to be superior to 3. 8% formalin and 2% Dialox-cj DA for the reuse of dialyzers.


Ultraviolet spectrophotometric characterization and bactericidal properties of electrolyzed oxidizing water as influenced by amperage and pH.

Len SVHung YCErickson MKim C.

Department of Food Science and Technology, College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, University of Georgia, Griffin 30223-1797, USA.

To identify the primary component responsible in electrolyzed oxidizing (EO) water for inactivation, this study determined the concentrations of hypochlorous acid (HOCl) and hypochlorite ions (OCl-) and related those concentrations to the microbicidal activity of the water. The ultraviolet absorption spectra were used to determine the concentrations of HOCl and OCl- in EO water and the chemical equilibrium of these species with change in pH and amperage. EO water generated at higher amperage contained a higher chlorine concentration. The maximum concentration of HOCl was observed around pH 4 where the maximum log reduction (2.3 log10 CFU/ml) of Bacillus cereus F4431/73 vegetative cells also occurred. The high correlation (r = 0.95) between HOCl concentrations and bactericidal effectiveness of EO water supports HOCl’s role as the primary inactivation agent. Caution should be taken with standard titrimetric methods for measurement of chlorine as they cannot differentiate the levels of HOCl present in EO water of varying pHs.


Effectiveness of electrolyzed oxidized water irrigation in a burn-wound infection model.

Nakae HInaba H.

Department of Emergency and Critical Care Medicine, Akita University School of Medicine, Japan.

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the study was to determine whether electrolyzed oxidized water (EOW) functions as a bactericide in burn injury with Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in a rat burn-wound model. METHODS: Anesthetized Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 31) were subjected to third-degree burns to 30% of total body surface area. Two days after injury, all rats were infected with P. aeruginosa using 1 mL of a suspension containing 1 x 10(8) colony-forming units. Rats were assigned to one of three groups: no irrigation (group I), irrigation with physiologic saline (group II), or irrigation with EOW (group III). Blood culture, endotoxin levels, and survival rates were determined. RESULTS: Survival rate was significantly higher in group III than in groups I or II (p < 0.0001). Serum endotoxin levels on day 3 after infection in group III were significantly lower than the levels in group I (p < 0.01) and group II (p < 0.01). There were significant differences between the three groups in the culture of P. aeruginosa (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Irrigation and disinfection with EOW may become useful in preventing burn-wound sepsis.


Disinfection potential of electrolyzed solutions containing sodium chloride at low concentrations.

Morita CSano KMorimatsu SKiura HGoto TKohno THong WUMiyoshi HIwasawa ANakamura Y,Tagawa MYokosuka OSaisho HMaeda TKatsuoka Y.

Department of Microbiology, Osaka Medical College, Japan.

Electrolyzed products of sodium chloride solution were examined for their disinfection potential against hepatitis B virus (HBV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in vitro. Electrolysis of 0.05% NaCl in tap water was carried out for 45 min at room temperature using a 3 A electric current in separate wells installed with positive and negative electrodes. The electrolyzed products were obtained from the positive well. The oxidation reduction potential (ORP), pH and free chlorine content of the product were 1053 mV, pH 2.34 and 4.20 ppm, respectively. The products modified the antigenicity of the surface protein of HBV as well as the infectivity of HIV in time- and concentration-dependent manner. Although the inactivating potential was decreased by the addition of contaminating protein, recycling of the product or continuous addition of fresh product may restore the complete disinfection against bloodborne pathogens.


Newer technologies for endoscope disinfection: electrolyzed acid water and disposable-component endoscope systems.

Nelson D.

Department of Gastroenterology, Minneapolis Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Minnesota 55417, USA.

Novel technologies have been designed to improve or replace more conventional methods of endoscope disinfection. Electrolyzed acid water has the potential to decrease the time, toxicity, and cost of endoscope disinfection. Disposable-component endoscope systems have the potential to improve the ease of cleaning and disinfection, or eliminate the need altogether


Roles of oxidation-reduction potential in electrolyzed oxidizing and chemically modified water for the inactivation of food-related pathogens.

Kim CHung YCBrackett RE.

Center for Food Safety and Quality Enhancement, Department of Food Science and Technology, College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, University of Georgia, Griffin 30223-1797, USA.

This study investigates the properties of electrolyzed oxidizing (EO) water for the inactivation of pathogen and to evaluate the chemically modified solutions possessing properties similar to EO water in killing Escherichia coli O157:H7. A five-strain cocktail (10(10) CFU/ml) of E. coli O157:H7 was subjected to deionized water (control), EO water with 10 mg/liter residual chlorine (J.A.W-EO water), EO water with 56 mg/liter residual chlorine (ROX-EO water), and chemically modified solutions. Inactivation (8.88 log10 CFU/ml reduction) of E. coli O157:H7 occurred within 30 s after application of EO water and chemically modified solutions containing chlorine and 1% bromine. Iron was added to EO or chemically modified solutions to reduce oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) readings and neutralizing buffer was added to neutralize chlorine. J.A.W-EO water with 100 mg/liter iron, acetic acid solution, and chemically modified solutions containing neutralizing buffer or 100 mg/liter iron were ineffective in reducing the bacteria population. ROX-EO water with 100 mg/liter iron was the only solution still effective in inactivation of E. coli O157:H7 and having high ORP readings regardless of residual chlorine. These results suggest that it is possible to simulate EO water by chemically modifying deionized water and ORP of the solution may be the primary factor affecting microbial inactivation.


Cytotoxicity and microbicidal activity of electrolyzed strong acid water and acidic hypochlorite solution under isotonic conditions.

Okubo KUrakami HTamura A.

Department of Pharmacy, Koseiren Murakami General Hospital, Murakami City, Japan.

The cytotoxic effects of electrolyzed strong acid water and acidic hypochlorite solution, as well as these solutions after isotonization, against cultivated L cells were compared along with their microbicidal activities. Isotonization was accompanied by a reduction in the cytotoxic effects of these solutions against L cells. Microbicidal activity was also reduced somewhat but was still retained after isotonization. No difference was observed in these properties between these antiseptic solutions. The results obtained indicate that acidic hypochlorite solution may be useful as well as acidic electrolyzed water.


Bactericidal effect of electrolyzed neutral water on bacteria isolated from infected root canals.

Horiba NHiratsuka KOnoe TYoshida TSuzuki KMatsumoto TNakamura H.

Department of Endodontics, School of Dentistry, Aichi-Gakuin University, Nagoya, Japan.

OBJECTIVE: The purposes of this study were to examine the time-related changes in pH, oxidation-reduction potential, and concentration of chlorine of electrolyzed neutral water and to evaluate the bactericidal effect of electrolyzed neutral water against bacteria from infected root canals. STUDY DESIGN: Various properties of electrolyzed neutral water–pH value, oxidation-reduction potential, and concentration of chlorine–were measured at different times after storage of the water in the open state, the closed state, or the closed-and-dark state. The bactericidal effect of the various electrolyzed neutral water samples was then tested against 17 strains of bacteria, including 15 strains isolated from infected canals, as well as against 1 strain of fungus. Each bacterial or fungal suspension was mixed with electrolyzed neutral water, and the 2 substances were reacted together for 1 minute. After incubation for 1 to 7 days, the bactericidal effect of the electrolyzed neutral water was determined. RESULTS: The pH value and oxidation-reduction potential of electrolyzed neutral water remained almost unchanged when the water was stored in a dark, closed container. However, the concentration of chlorine decreased from 18.4 ppm to 10.6 ppm. Electrolyzed neutral water showed a bactericidal or growth-inhibitory effect against the bacteria. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate that electrolyzed neutral water maintains a constant pH and oxidation-reduction potential when kept in a closed container without light and that it exhibits a bacteriostatic/bactericidal action against isolates obtained from infected root canals.


Electrolyzed-reduced water scavenges active oxygen species and protects DNA from oxidative damage.

Shirahata SKabayama SNakano MMiura TKusumoto KGotoh MHayashi HOtsubo KMorisawa S,Katakura Y.

Institute of Cellular Regulation Technology, Graduate School of Genetic Resources Technology, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan.

Active oxygen species or free radicals are considered to cause extensive oxidative damage to biological macromolecules, which brings about a variety of diseases as well as aging. The ideal scavenger for active oxygen should be ‘active hydrogen’. ‘Active hydrogen’ can be produced in reduced water near the cathode during electrolysis of water. Reduced water exhibits high pH, low dissolved oxygen (DO), extremely high dissolved molecular hydrogen (DH), and extremely negative redox potential (RP) values. Strongly electrolyzed-reduced water, as well as ascorbic acid, (+)-catechin and tannic acid, completely scavenged O.-2 produced by the hypoxanthine-xanthine oxidase (HX-XOD) system in sodium phosphate buffer (pH 7.0). The superoxide dismutase (SOD)-like activity of reduced water is stable at 4 degrees C for over a month and was not lost even after neutralization, repeated freezing and melting, deflation with sonication, vigorous mixing, boiling, repeated filtration, or closed autoclaving, but was lost by opened autoclaving or by closed autoclaving in the presence of tungsten trioxide which efficiently adsorbs active atomic hydrogen. Water bubbled with hydrogen gas exhibited low DO, extremely high DH and extremely low RP values, as does reduced water, but it has no SOD-like activity. These results suggest that the SOD-like activity of reduced water is not due to the dissolved molecular hydrogen but due to the dissolved atomic hydrogen (active hydrogen). Although SOD accumulated H2O2 when added to the HX-XOD system, reduced water decreased the amount of H2O2 produced by XOD. Reduced water, as well as catalase and ascorbic acid, could directly scavenge H2O2. Reduce water suppresses single-strand breakage of DNA b active oxygen species produced by the Cu(II)-catalyzed oxidation of ascorbic acid in a dose-dependent manner, suggesting that reduced water can scavenge not only O2.- and H2O2, but also 1O2 and .OH.


Trial of electrolyzed strong acid aqueous solution lavage in the treatment of peritonitis and intraperitoneal abscess.

Inoue YEndo SKondo KIto HOmori HSaito K.

Critical Care and Emergency Center, Iwate Medical University, Morioka, Japan.

Electrolyzed strong acid aqueous solution is acidic water that contains active oxygen and active chlorine and possesses a redox potential. We performed peritoneal and abscess lavages with an electrolyzed strong acid aqueous solution to treat 7 patients with peritonitis and intraperitoneal abscesses, who were seen in our department between December 1994 and April 1995. The underlying disease was duodenal ulcer perforation in 4 of these 7 patients and gastric ulcer perforation, acute enteritis, and intraperitoneal perforation of pyometrium in 1 patient each. Irrigation was performed twice a day. Microbiological studies of the paracentesis fluid were negative in 3 cases, and the irrigation period was 2-4 days. Anaerobic bacteria were isolated in 3 of the 4 positive cases (Bacteroides in 2, Prevotella in 1), and a fungus (Candida) was isolated in the remaining patient. The period of irrigation in these patients ranged from 9 to 12 days, but conversion to a microorganism negative state was observed in 3-7 days.


[Bactericidal effect of acidic electrolyzed water–comparison of chemical acidic sodium hydrochloride (NaOCl) solution]

[Article in Japanese]

Iwasawa ANakamura Y.

Department of Clinical Pathology, Showa University Fujigaoka Hospital, Kanagawa.

Acidic electrolyzed water is made recently by various kinds of machines and is widely utilized. In this study, we intended to clarify the relationship between the concentration of chloride and pH in the bactericidal effects with acidic electrolyzed water. The effects of weak or strong acidic electrolyzed water were compared with a pseudo-acidic water of pH adjusted by diluted hydrochloric acid and sodium hydroxide, on Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Pseudomononas aeruginosa. At pH 5.0 approximately 6.0, 3 bacterial strains were killed soon after being exposed to the acidic water containing chloride 50 mg/liter, and the amount of chloride did not change after allowing to stand open for 6 hours. At pH 2.67 approximately 2.80, the bactericidal effects was observed at the concentration of chloride 5 mg/liter, and 80% of chloride remained after allowing to stand for 6 hours. These results indicated that newly made strong acidic water is more effective under a smaller amount of chloride at pH 2.7, and that weak acidic electrolyzed water should be used, if stable bactericidal effect is expected in cleaning the surroundings.


[Preliminary study of microbiocide effect and its mechanism of electrolyzed oxidizing water]

[Article in Chinese]

Li XWSun SHLi T.

Institute of Epidemiology and Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Preventive Medicine, Beijing.

Electrolyzed Oxidizing water (EO Water) is characterized by possessing higher oxidizing reduction potential (ORP), lower pH value and oxidizing potential. Under conditions of free organic matter, it was tested for microbiocide efficacy in laboratory. The results showed that EO water could completely kill all of the staphylococcus aureus and E. coli within 15 seconds, while for completely killing of spores of Bacillus subtilis Var. niger it would take 10 min. When it was used to destroy the antigenicity of HBsAg, 30 seconds was needed. The ORP and pH values of EO water were not obviously changed when stored in room-temperature with, airtight and light-free conditions for three weeks. Distilled water and physiological saline had little influence on the ORP and pH value of EO water, but organic matters and phosphates had greater influence upon the two values.


Cleaning effectiveness of root canal irrigation with electrochemically activated anolyte and catholyte solutions: a pilot study.

Solovyeva AMDummer PM.

Faculty of Stomatology, St. Petersburg I.P. Pavlov’s State Medical University, St. Petersburg, Russia CIS.

AIM: The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of electrochemically activated (ECA) anolyte and catholyte solutions to clean root canals during conventional root canal preparation. METHODOLOGY: Twenty extracted single-rooted human mature permanent teeth were allocated randomly into four groups of five teeth. The pulp chambers were accessed and the canals prepared by hand with conventional stainless steel endodontic instruments using a double-flared technique. One or other of the following irrigants was used during preparation: distilled water, 3% NaOCl, anolyte neutral cathodic (ANC) (300 mg L-1 of active chlorine), and a combination of anolyte neutral cathodic (ANC) (300 mg L-1 of active chlorine) and catholyte. The teeth were split longitudinally and the canal walls examined for debris and smear layer by scanning electron microscopy. SEM photomicrographs were taken separately in the coronal, middle and apical parts of canal at magnification of x800 to evaluate the debridement of extracellular matrix and at a magnification of x2500 to evaluate the presence of smear layer. RESULTS: Irrigation with distilled water did not remove debris in the apical part of canals and left a continuous and firm smear layer overlying compressed low-mineralized predentine. All chemically active irrigants demonstrated improved cleaning potential compared to distilled water. The quality of loose debris elimination was similar for NaOCl and the anolyte ANC solution. The combination of anolyte ANC and catholyte resulted in improved cleaning, particularly in the apical third of canals. The evaluation of smear layer demonstrated that none of the irrigants were effective in its total removal; however, chemically active irrigants affected its surface and thickness. Compared to NaOCl, the ECA solutions left a thinner smear layer with a smoother and more even surface. NaOCl enhanced the opening of tubules predominantly in the coronal and middle thirds of canals, whereas combination of ANC and catholyte resulted in more numerous open dentine tubules throughout the whole length of canals. CONCLUSIONS: Irrigation with electrochemically activated solutions cleaned root canal walls and may be an alternative to NaOCl in conventional root canal treatment. Further investigation of ECA solutions for root canal irrigation is warranted.


The Anti-microbial Activity of Electrolysed Oxidizing Water against Microorganisms relevant in Veterinary Medicine

Institute of Veterinary Bacteriology, Vetsuisse-Faculty University of Zurtich, Winterthurerstrasse, Zurich, Switzerland. Received for publication 6 September, 2005


Standards of the German Association of Veterinary Medicine (DVG) for the evaluation of chemical disinfectants were used to assess the anti-microbial efficacy of electrolysed oxidizing water (EOW). Enterococcus faecium, Mycobacterium avium subspecies avium, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans were exposed to anode EOW (pH, 3.0 ± 0.1; oxidation-reduction potential (ORP), +1100 ± 50 mV; free chlorine, 400 ± 20 mg/l Cl2) and combined EOW (7 : 3 anode : cathode, v/v; pH, 8.3 ± 0.1; ORP, 930–950 mV; free chlorine, 271 ± 20 mg/l Cl2).

In water of standardized hardness (WSH), all bacterial strains were completely inactivated by a 30 min exposure to maximum 10.0% anode EOW (_40.0 mg/l Cl2) or 50.0% combined EOW (_135.5 mg/l Cl2). The sensitivity ranking order for anode EOW to the bacterial test strains was P. mirabilis > S. aureus > M. avium ssp. avium > E. faecium > P. aeruginosa. P. mirabilis and S. aureus decreased to undetectable levels after 5 min of exposure to 7.5% anode EOW (_30.0 mg/l Cl2). Candida albicans was completely inactivated by a 5-min exposure to 5.0% anode EOW. Both, anode and combined EOW exhibited no anti-microbial activities in standardized nutrient broth or after addition of 20.0% bovine serum to the WSH. Further research is necessary to evaluate the efficacy of EOW as a disinfectant under operating conditions in animal production facilities.


Effects of electrolyzed oxidizing water on reducing Listeria monocytogenes contamination on seafood processing surfaces.